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Libya History (English)

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Translated with Google Translator, as we do not have time at the moment for a full edited translation.

Enjoy the "Libya" special geographical location. They are located in the center of North Africa, and the length of its coastline on the Mediterranean 955.1 km. The vast stretch their place from the center of the northern coast of Africa on the Mediterranean to north-central highlands of the African continent. 760.000 has an area of ​​0.1 million square kilometers and comes fourth in the ranking in terms of area among African countries.The "Libya" an important bridge linking Africa and Europe. The valid ports for the reception of ships throughout the year such as the ports of Benghazi and Tripoli and other ports are good for trade of some African countries such as Niger, Chad and Mali with the outside world. It is also the location - is an important communication link between the Arab world and the bright western parts. For this reason, clearly shows where the confluence of currents and mixing of culture and civilization of Arab and Islamic countries. This geographic location is important to make the history of "Libya" political is closely linked to the Arab and Islamic history, as well as on the countries of eastern and southern Mediterranean in general. Has been since ancient times an active role in the political evolution of this part of the world. The ancient Egyptians knew the clans living to the west of Egypt Libyans. The Libyan tribe that live in the area bordering Egypt is the tribe Libo LIBU. The mention of this tribe for the first time in Egyptian texts attributed to King Merenptah MERNEPTAH of the Nineteenth Dynasty (thirteenth century BC. M). It derives its name the name of Libya and Libyan. The Greeks knew this name by the Egyptians, but LANDS on all of northern Africa west of Egypt, and so stated when Herodotus, who visited the "Libya" at the beginning of the second half of the fifth century BC. M. Has reached some tribes a degree of power enabled it to enter Egypt and the formation of a dynasty is a family twenty-second, which retained the throne two centuries (from the tenth century to the eighth century BC). Could founder of this dynasty, King Shashank to unite Egypt, and sweep the Palestine and takes on a number of cities and return the spoils of many. Phoenicians began to connect the northern coasts of Africa since the early period. Reached the Phoenicians a high degree of progress and took control of the Mediterranean and monopolized trade and they were when they cross the sea between the shores of the Levant, Spain, which they brought them silver, tin, sail along the west coast of the "" Libya "and that they used not to depart significantly from the beach for fear of disorder the sea. was Sagnhm dock on the shores of "Libya" to provide what you need during the flight long sea. was founded by the Phoenicians centers and stations, commercial lot along the way from their ports in the east to Spain in the West. In spite of the large number of these centers and commercial stations, cities set up by the and established by the Phoenicians were a few in order to completely fell apart b were traders to Amstamaren. because some historians, the reasons for the establishment of towns settled by the Phoenicians in North Africa to the growing population and limited agricultural area in the homeland, and also because of the conflict, which is often done by the general public and the ruling class. Add to Y you were exposed Phoenicia from time to time from the raids, Cgarat Assyrians, Persians and then strikes the Greek. spread the influence of the Phoenicians to the borders of Cyrenaica (Koranaúah). and established some important cities (Tripoli, Leptis Magna, and Sbernh), which played a major role in the history of North Africa. The boom in their trade on the west coast of Libya, for ease of access to the middle of Africa, rich in its products profitable gold and precious stones, ivory, ebony, as well as the slave, and was the most important caravan routes out of the city of Germa. and this became that city an important center combines the products mid-Africa-borne convoys through the desert to the coastal centers where they are sold to the Phoenicians for materials that were brought in with them. continued Goths in control of the interior of Libya for a period which exceeds one thousand years. While the income of the Phoenicians and the Greeks into business relations with them, the Romans tried to subject Jermanyen power and control directly on the trade of Central Africa. but they failed to that in the end, they found that it is better peaceful that tribe. continued presence of the Phoenicians and has increased their influence in North Africa, especially after the founding of the city of Carthage in the fourth quarter of the ninth century BC. (814 BC).. and became Carthage greater political power and trade in the Mediterranean basin west , and enjoyed a long period of political stability and economic prosperity. and entered Carthage, then in a bitter struggle with Rome. was envy and jealousy fill the hearts of the Romans on what we have reached the Phoenician city of power and wealth, and began working and planning in order to eliminate them. After a series of wars strenuous . incurred by the parties a lot of lives and money, a war known to history wars Punic, was able to Rome to achieve its goal and to destroy Carthage destructive comprehensive and that was the year (146 BC. m.) and have fallen so each property Carthage - including the Libyan cities of the three Tripoli , Lebda, Te and patience - to the Romanian State.

The eastern coast of Libya (Cyrenaica - Koranaúah), the colonists went to the Greeks.Accounted for, the coast of Cyrenaica a more appropriate sites that can be established where migrants Greeks their colonies, they are not far from their country, in addition to what they knew of the abundance of its resources and fertile lands and rich pastures cattle and sheep. Greek colonization began, the territory Koranaúah (gently) in the seventh century BC. Founded the city, when the Korana (Cyrene) years (631 BC). Batos The first is the first king of the city, has inherited his family's rule in Korana for a period of almost two centuries the number of immigrants was not the first large as estimated by some at about two hundred men.

But in the third era of the kings of the second Korana Batos attended large numbers of migrants and the Greeks settled in the minority. This has upset the Libyans, and entered in a war with the Greeks to defend their existence and their land by colonists expelled them and gave it to the new immigrants. In spite of that the family that founded the first Batos continued in power for so long, it has not stable because of the attacks that were launched by the Libyan tribes on the Greek colonies in the coastal area.

Erkiselaws in the era of the second _ the fourth king of Korana _ seen as some of the Greeks, led by his brother, King City, Korana to help establish the Libyan city of Cyrenaica (turf). As the number of immigrants who came to the city of Korana, the city sent some of them to create some shops close to the beach. Including the camp was established Tokhirh (Tocra) on its website.

Also established another colony Korana City is a city Johcyprid Yassin (Benghazi). As for the port is Korana Apollonia (Susa), the city of Cyrenaica is also established in the port site Btouleumis (Ptolemais).

When the Persians conquered Egypt, he sent an embassy to King Korana the Persian king, declaring the territory subject Koranaúah. Continued subordination of the region to Egypt and the Persian Oalleha though mostly nominal dependency. In the mid-fifth century BC. M (440 BC). Killed Erkiselaws IV, the last king of Batos family, in Johcyprides, and became Koranaúah includes cities are independent of each other.Although the cities of the region in this period has enjoyed something of economic prosperity, they suffered from political turmoil, in addition to the increased risk of attacks by Libyan tribes, those cities were vying with each other, and ravaged by internal divisions. And so that the mystery of Alexander the Macedonian Egypt (332 BC. M.) And took the Ptolemaic successors in the rule of Egypt on the territory of Koranaúah (332 BC. M.), As there was something of relative calm and become cities of the region know all the name Bntaboles, ie, the land of the five cities, may be a regional union includes these cities and enjoy the independence of procedure. Koranaúah and remained under the rule of the Ptolemaic until he was forced to assign them to Rome in (96 BC. M.) And became a province under the auspices of the Senate and was being with the Roman province of Crete and the one that separated the emperor Qldjnos at the end of the third century AD.

When Emperor Constantine the first recognition of Christianity in the first half of the fourth century AD, we find that the religion had spread in Libya. But we must not understand that it meant the elimination of paganism. Have coexisted religions side by side in a period of nearly century and a half centuries, even after making the Emperor Theodosius I Christianity the official religion and only in the Empire in a decree issued by year (392 BC. M.) And this is no different as Libya from other regions of the Romanian State. He was the first bishop of the territory of Cyrenaica record date someone named Amonas. This was the year (260 BC. M.) And was attended by bishops from cities Abanntaboles first conference Christian world, a conference convened by the Emperor Constantine in the city of Nicaea years (325 BC. M.) Was Bishop Cncios Alkorana most important people of the Christian period in Cyrenaica.Diocese took Ptolemais and went to the imperial court in Constantinople at the time of Emperor Arkadiusz to introduce problems that were facing the region, which was the most important heavy taxes imposed on the cities. The main problem faced by the region on his days is to defend against invasions of Libyan tribes, which has intensified after a year (332 P) and what is not possible to rely on the assistance the imperial government, the urban and rural areas close to the organization of guard Local to defend their land. The picture given by Cncios about the situation in the region led many scholars to say that life in Abanntaboles has faded at all in the fifth century AD. However, the ancient monuments proves that while the cities were diminished under the countryside retains remarkable vigor for a period of two centuries after that.

It was not different for the cities of the west coast. After the demise of the family Asifiria in the first half of the third century AD, the empire prevailed in a state of chaos and civil war for half a century. While other regions were able to recover her breath in the Empire after the crisis and it was something of security and order continued turmoil ravaging the north of Africa, which facilitated its occurrence in the hands of the Vandals. Vandals crossed the masses to the north of Africa about a year (430 BC. M.) And captured the cities of the territory of Tripoli, which has suffered much of what is usually inflicted by the Vandals of ruin and destruction everywhere they settle in it. In spite of that Empire ROMANIAN has regained territory in the sixth century AD to the reign of Emperor Justinian when he succeeded his commander Balzarius in the expulsion of the Vandals, Libya, both in the province of Cyrenaica or in the territory of Tripoli, has been suffering from the effects of the deep wounds left by the hordes of Vandals, and the country the whole is ready to receive any new light save her from the chaos and confusion and weakness. In the meantime, in sight at the vanguard of Arab Muslim conquerors, who came to put an end to this bad situation and open a new page in the history of the country.

The Arab conquest of the Islamic conquests of the greatest and most influential deeper, eternal in the country. Arabs spread all over the country and merged with the local population (Arabs who arrived in successive migrations before the Islamic conquest), and Libya became a virtue of that conquest, which was in the seventh century Arab Islamic State. Arabs could shortly after their arrival to consolidate their rule and to spread the pillars of security throughout the country. And remained Libya belonging to the successor in the east to take the Ibrahim bin mostly state of Africa about a year (800 F) and became subordinated to the central government in the Middle subordination of nominal, which is apparently that the Caliph had not objected to by many because the political circumstances in their own sprawling necessitated decentralization of power.I'm probably the foundations of the family have ruled the country until it fell into the hands of the Fatimids years (909-910 F) for the western part of the country, while the eastern part has remained in most cases, an affiliate of the mandate of Egypt.

At the beginning of the tenth century, the advocates of Shiite militants in North Africa.Gathered around them a great number of agents, and were able at (910 P) to be uprooted Tunisia Aghlabid, and worked to consolidate their rule and taking the princes the title of Khalifa, in defiance of the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, in the year (969 F) succeeded the essence of Sicilian commander of the armies of the Fatimid Caliph fourth Muizz take Alakhcidiin of Egypt, and charted the city of Cairo, which became the capital of the Fatimid caliphate, which moved to Muizz years (973 F) and leave the goats Belkin Ben Ministers of the ruler of North Africa, including the territory of Tripoli. In spite of the cordiality which characterized the relationship between the Fatimid Caliph and his deputy, to North Africa in the beginning, the Son of Ministers found that the arrangements made by the goats to Allah's religion of the state is appropriate for him, as to make Muizz all matters of state finance in the hands of staff members follow him immediately, and this was rejected by Ministers son who was arrested on the workers and the Caliph sent a letter to a strongly-worded goats in Cairo, died Muizz before he could take any action against the son ministers. And his successor, Aziz, who admitted de facto recognized the son ministers of the mandate of Africa which is now extending to the Ajdabiya, and remained the state in the hands of the children of ministers of the Year (1145 F), but it was in a state of chaos and weakness facilitated the Normans, who were operating from bases in Sicily , Tripoli, led by their leader to extract the essence of Sicilian. In (1158 P) Almohads succeeded in expelling the Normans from Tripoli. And was able to strengthen their rule of the Almohads and strengthen their position in North Africa until (1230 F). Unitarians have left the rule of the eastern parts of their property to Hvsaan. But gently did not fall within the areas taken by the Hafsids, as it has direct control of Egypt and that enjoyed in some cases, self-governing.

Spaniards conquered Tripoli year (1510 P) and continued to govern until the year (1530 q) given when Charles V, Emperor of the Romanian Empire of the Knights of St. John, who became known at the time knights of Malta. Cavalry and remained in the Tripoli twenty-one years old. Cavalry was not very excited to keep in Tripoli. In addition to the hostility shown by the Libyans towards them because they considered them a foreign element outsider and most importantly, they are the enemies of religion, objected to the grant of such knights, which means the division of their forces, and the distance that separates Malta from Tripoli means can not help in case of any attack. In the year (1551 P), and after Alastagathat that were directed to the Ottoman sultan, as the successor to the Muslims, was attended by Sinan Pasha and Drghout to Tripoli, and imposed by the blockade lasted one week and ended the fall of the city. In fact, the Tripoli were not ever able to center the Knights of St. John, keep it against any resistance.

Entered the country since the (1551 P) agreed a new era historians to be called the Covenant is the first Ottoman, which ends (1711 P) when Ahmed Pasha boarded the Qara Manley in the state.

This included all regions of the Ottoman rule Libya: Tripoli, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan, and ran its affairs and the (PASHA) is appointed by the Sultan. But it was not until a century began to alternate weakness in limbs of the Ottoman Empire, and became the central government unable to impose order and control the governors who have been setting up and dismissed by the whims of the soldiers, in an atmosphere charged conspiracies and violence. In many cases, the governor was left in office Aktar of one year so that in the period between the years (1672 -1711 P-P) came to power twenty-four and automatically. I have gone through difficult times the country's people have suffered as a result of the scourge insecurity and instability.

In the year (1711 F) Ahmad Qara Manley led a popular revolution overthrew the prefectural. Ahmed was an officer in the Turkish army and decided to rid the country of the corrupt rulers and put an end to the chaos. As the Libyan people had become fed up with the strict authoritarian rule has welcomed Ahmad Qara Manley, who has pledged better governance, has approved the appointment of Sultan Pasha on Libya and give him a great deal of autonomy. But Qara Manliyn were considered even for Foreign Affairs of competence, Libya was a strong fleet has enabled it to enjoy international personality and became blessed with the kind of independence.

Ahmad Qara Manley founded a dynasty continued to rule until Libya (1835 P) and Yusuf Pasha is considered the most prominent rulers of this family and furthest Thera.

Joseph was an ambitious ruler Pasha emphasized the sovereignty of Libya's territorial waters, and student fees for various sea states to pass through those waters. He also called for in the year (1803 P), an increase tariffs on U.S. ships to safety insurance when it passed in Libyan waters. When she refused his request to meet the United States took over one of its vessels. Which prompted the U.S. to impose sanctions on Tripoli and hit a bomb. But the Libyans were able to resist the siege and y you captured one of the ships of America (Philadelphia) in (1805 P) which made the U.S. are subject to their demands. Thus, Yusuf Pasha was able to fill the coffers with money that was paid by States marine insurance for the safety of its vessels. But Yusuf Pasha's just that neglected the affairs of the country and indulge in the pleasures of luxury and resorted to borrowing from European countries.

The Ottoman Sultan began tightening Yusuf Pasha and his actions, especially when he refused to help the Sultan Yusuf against the Greeks (1829 F) and in the meantime against the Qara Manliyn massive revolution led by Abdul Jalil Seif El Nasr. And intensified pressure on European countries to pay off his debts Joseph. As the vaults are empty impose new taxes, which worsened the people and aroused his anger, and discontent spread and spread the revolution and forced the Pasha Yusuf to resign, leaving the government to his son, Ali, was the year (1832 P) .. But the situation in the country had reached a degree of evil is not possible with reform. In spite of the Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839) and Ali acknowledged ruler of Libya, the attention was focused more on how to maintain the property remainder of the Empire, especially after the loss of Greece and Algeria (1830 F). After a thorough study of the situation in Tripoli, the Sultan decided to intervene directly and regained his authority. On May 26, 1835 P-Turkish fleet arrived in Tripoli and arrested Ali Pasha and was transferred to Turkey.And thus ended the rule of Qara Manliyn in Libya. Libyans are optimistic much the return of the Turks and the protectors of those they saw them against the risks of a valuable French Algeria and in Tunisia, as well as the risk of the British who began their influence is growing in Egypt and Sudan. But the connection of the Turkish state in Libya has become a difficult and risky due to the presence of the British valuable Egypt, which led to the weakness of the Turkish rule in Libya and the Libyans to make them realize that it would only burden the face of any external threat.

Italy was the last European countries that entered the field of colonial expansion. Libya was at the end of the nineteenth century, is the only part of the Arab world in North Africa, who could not grab it from the Crusaders.

The proximity of Libya from Italy to make it a prime target of the goals of the Italian colonial policy. Italy was not difficult to fabricate pretexts flimsy to declare war on Turkey on September 29, 1911 F. .. And was able to capture Tripoli on 3 October of the same year. Turkish forces resisted the Italians for a short period, but Turkey ceded Libya to Italy under the treaty concluded between the two countries in October 18, 1912, and the Libyans now realize that they have to organize their ranks and take over themselves is Mquaomaalmstamr. The intensified resistance of the Libyan Italian forces which prevented the Italians beyond the control of coastal cities. When Italy entered the First World War 1915 P joined Sharif Ahmed, who was leading the resistance against the Italian invasion in Cyrenaica, along with Turkey against the Allies, but after the defeat of his forces cede leadership to Idris al-Sanusi.

Italy emerged victorious from the war, which enhanced its position, but the resistance in Libya did not stop. Continued Libyans, although they unarmed struggle for the liberation of their homeland, have prompted resistance force the Italians to be given some promises to Idris al-Sanusi, which included recognition of a prince of parts of gently which urged it to engage in a series of agreements disgraceful with the Italians intended to Abortion Jihad, which stipulates that the agreements expressly to stop fighting and hand over weapons of the Mujahideen, and to the popular rejection of these agreements and to the determination of the Mujahideen to carry on the fight against the Italians and their rejection of the texts of the agreements, forced Idris al-Sanusi to flee to Egypt, and took Omar Mukhtar the leadership of Islamic Jihad. After he took the party reins in fascist Italy in 1922 P began in colonial policy of strict, and spread the revolution throughout Libya, but the military leaders and the Italians followed the brutal methods to suppress the Libyan resistance. It was a long and mighty suppressed all Libyans, were not spared from that even women and children. In 1931 the P captured Omar Mukhtar, who was leader of the resistance movement and executed by hanging on September 16, 1931 P and thus were able to control the country, and seized the most fertile land and gave it to the large crowd of Italian households, which was brought to live in Libya.

When the Second World War, he saw the Libyans the opportunity to be exploited for the liberation of their country. When Italy entered the war 1940 P joined the Libyans to the ranks of the Allies, after Britain promised explicitly that when the war ends, Libya will not return in any way under the control of Italy.

Libyans were doubts the intentions of Britain after the war. These intentions became apparent after the defeat of Italy and the fall of Benghazi and Tripoli in the hands of British troops. The objective of Britain Almtmshee with its usual (divide and rule), is to separate the two regions of Cyrenaica and Tripoli, and the granting of Fezzan to France, as well as work on planting the seeds of discord between the Libyans and while saw the Libyans that the defeat of Italy in 1943, P must be the sovereignty of Libya for its people, the British and the French refused to do so, and determined to rule Libya until a settlement with Italy. And became these two countries Taatgman the fate of Libya against the wishes of its people, and after many negotiations, it was agreed to grant gently independence recognized by the British on the spot, and that was the first in June 1949 P, but this procedure was than calm the Libyans and distracting them from their case did not remain silent voice are free of Libya, who continued to claim their rights and restore their freedom. This insistence on the part of the Libyans in Libya to the issue of a place in the agendas of the conferences held by the major powers after World War II as a transport Libyans their case to the United Nations.

In the meantime, departments manage colonial intrigues and conspiracies weaving on the future of Libya. Was published in Britain and Italy 10/3/1949 P project between Saforza on Libya. Under this project the Italian trusteeship imposed on Tripoli and Cyrenaica by the British trusteeship and guardianship French Fezzan, in Libya to grant independence after ten years from the date of approval of the project. Has been approved by the relevant committee in the United Nations in P 13/5/1949 and submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations to vote on it. But the project failed for having a small number of votes in favor. After negotiations, many attempts to find compromise solutions to the issue of Libya, the General Assembly of the United Nations Resolution No. 289 on 21.11.1949 P which provides for the granting Libya its independence, not later than the first of January 1952 P, and formed a committee to work to implement the decision of the United Nations and make every effort to achieve the unity of Libya and the transfer of power to the Government of Libyan independent.


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